Dermatology Kingston - A skin rash is defined as a change of the skin that affects its appearance, texture or color. Rashes can be localized in one area of the body or they may affect the whole skin. Usually, rashes could cause the skin to itch, become bumpy, dry, blistered, cracked, painful, swollen or warm. Often, rashes could cause the skin to change color. The treatments and causes for rashes vary considerably depending on the diagnosis. The diagnosis is formed by considering a variety of factors like the rashes' overall appearance, what the patient's job is, what the person may have been exposed to, various signs and the family history. The diagnosis may in fact confirm whatever number of health problems.
Having a rash appear anywhere on the body could indicate associated symptoms and signs which are common of specific diseases. Like for instance, the rash in measles is referred to as an erythematous, morbilliform, maculopapular rash. This normally presents itself a few days after the fever begins and naturally it presents at the head and after that works its way downwards.
The most common causes of a skin rash consist of food allergies, anxieties, medicines, dyes and insect bites and stings. Jewelry made of zincs and nickels have been found to be allergens. Skin contact with an irritant usually causes hives. These raised portions of skin can become inflamed, itchy, red, swollen and painful. Rashes may likewise result from a reaction to vaccination, from a fungal infection such as ringworm, from friction due to chafing of the skin, from sunburn or heat exposure, and from skin diseases like eczema or acne.
Viral and bacterial infections could lead to a rash on the skin. The smallpox, chickenpox, cold sore and measles viruses can cause uncomfortable and distinct rashes. There are various uncommon causes of rashes like: lead poisoning, Lyme disease, pregnancy, autoimmune disorders like psoriasis and of course repeated and frequent scratching on a particular part.
Since there are a lot of potential causes of a rash, the evaluation may be rather hard. A health provider may have to do a completely thorough history in order to obtain an accurate evaluation. Like for example, what is the individual's job? Are they taking any kind of medication on a regular basis? Has the person just traveled to whatever exotic locations? Normally, a complete physical examination would be useful in order to determine the origin and cause of the rash.
Certain Elements to Include in the Examination Are:
The appearance of the rash, for example, is it sandpaper and fine as found with scarlet fever, is it purpuric, that is usual for meningococcal disease and vasculitis? Does the rash consist of circular lesions with a central depression, which is usual of molluscum contagiosum and small pox? Or is the rash consisting of plaques with silver scales which is commonly seen with psoriasis?
How is the rash distributed on the body? With chickenpox, for example, the vesicles will follow the hollows of the body. They are thus more prominent in the hollows of both shoulder blades as well as on the depression of the spine on the back. The rash presented with scarlet fever becomes confluent and forms bright red lines in the skin creases of the armpits, groins and neck. These lines are referred to as Pastia's lines. There are not many rashes which affect the palms of the hands or the soles of the feet, although this can be seen in rikettsia or spotted fever, secondary syphilis, mouth, hand and foot disease as well as guttate psoriasis and likewise in kertoderma blenorrhagica. The symmetry of the rash is another feature to consider. Like for example, herpes zoster normally only affects one side of the body throughout an outbreak and does not cross the midline.
It is normally good advice never to scratch a rash, since whatever scratching can cause it to spread. It could be tempting to gently rub the affected part in order to provide temporary relief but it is better to avoid contact with the affected parts completely.
Skin diseases can present signs anywhere on the body. Amongst the prevalent forms comprise Acne Vulgaris which consists of papules, nodules, comedones and pustules. This particular condition is usually found on the back, chest and on the face. Acne Rosacea is defined as an area of flushed appearance or redness, normally found on the nose, chin, cheeks or forehead. Boils are a skin condition that could occur anywhere as a painful red bump or a series or cluster of painful red bumps. Cellulitis could be found around a skin breach such as in a scrape or cut. It presents as a red, swollen and tender part of skin. Insect bites can happen anywhere on the body and are found as itchy and red, often swollen bumps on the skin.
After ingesting or being exposed to some drugs, medicines or foods, allergic reactions could visibly appear on the skin. They appear as raised, irregular or flat red sores. Hives could appear anywhere on the body. These are bumps which form all of a sudden and are often initially noticed on the face. Seborrheic Dermatitis is the definition of bumps and swelling which appear near glands. Cradle Cap is a condition on the scalp of newly born babies that looks like scaly, dry skin. Irritant Contact Dermatitis is one more condition which becomes a red, scaly or itchy or oily rash. It can be found on the eyebrows, edge of the scalp, nose or where the body is in contact with clothing, perfume or jewelry.
Allergic Contact Dermatitis is the allergic response to trees and bushes, like for example sumac, poison ivy and oak. On the person, these may show as scaly, red, itchy or oily rash that could be leathery or weeping. Allergic Purpura can happen anywhere on the body and looks like small red dots on the skin or even larger, bruise-like spots that appeared after taking medicine. Pityriasis Rosea could initially start with a single scaly, red, slightly itchy spot. Within a few days, there could be large numbers of smaller patches of red or tan rash. This is found on the chest and abdomen area. Dermatitis Herpetiformis is a condition that consists of an extremely itchy rash with blisters and red bumps, found on the buttocks, elbows, back or knees.
These are amongst the common skin rashes: warts, Erythema nodosum, Chickenpox, Psoriasis, Fifth Disease, Shingles, diaper rash, Ringworm, Jock itch, yeast infection, Impetigo, Tinea versicolor, Scabies, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lupus erythematosus, and a lot more.
There are different treatment options depending on what type of rash the patient has been diagnosed with. Some rashes are easily fixed with non-steroidal treatments like for instance salves made with sage, aloe vera, tea tree oil or comfrey. Other topical steroid creams such as hydrocortisone are prescribed. Different medications could be found over the counter and some could be specially blended from a Herbalist or Naturopathic Doctor.
Click to Download the pdf