Epilepsy Kingston - The word epilepsy comes from the Ancient Greek word that translates to "seizure." It is a common neurological disorder which is defined by seizures. These seizures are indications or transient symptoms, indications of excessive, abnormal or hyper-synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Epilepsy usually happens in young children or those individuals who are more than the age of sixty five, however, it could happen at whatever time. All around the globe, more than 50 million people have epilepsy. Approximately 2 out of every 3 cases are discovered in developing nations. Epileptic seizures can likewise result as a consequence of brain surgery and people recovering from such operation could experience them.
The condition of epilepsy is generally controlled with medication, even though it is not treated in this manner. Even on the best medications, more than 30% of individuals with epilepsy do not have seizure control. In numerous cases, a surgical procedure could be considered difficult. In numerous situations, not all epilepsy syndromes are considered lifelong. Several kinds are confined to certain stages of childhood.
Epilepsy should not be considered as a single disorder, but instead as a syndrome with variously divergent indications which all involve episodic abnormal electrical activity within the brain. Seizure types are organized firstly based on whether the source of the seizure is localized as in partial or focal onset seizures or whether they are more generalized or distributed seizures.
On to the extend in which part of consciousness is affected, partial seizures are further divided. If it is unaffected for example, then it is considered a simple partial seizure. If not, it is referred to as a complex partial or complex psychomotor seizure. Secondary generalization is the term when a partial seizure can spread within the brain. Generalized seizures comprise loss of consciousness and are divided based on the effect on the body. These include atonic, tonic clonic or grand mal, tonic or clonic, myoclonic or petit mal seizures.
Children would sometimes exhibit some behaviours that are easily mistaken for epileptic seizures, yet they are not actually caused by epilepsy. These behaviours comprise: inattentive staring, benign shudders, self gratification behaviours including head banging, rocking and nodding, conversion disorder, which is flailing and jerking of the head often in response to intense personal stress as such would incur in a case of physical abuse. Conversion disorder could be distinguished from epilepsy because the episodes do not comprise self-injury, incontinence or happen during sleep.
Just as there are kinds of seizures, there are a lot of various kinds of epilepsy syndromes. The classifications include facts about the episodes and about the patient, in addition to the seizure kind. It even comprises clinical features and expected causes like behaviour during the seizure.
There are over forty different kinds of epilepsy consisting of: frontal lobe epilepsy, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, childhood absence epilepsy, LennoxGastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, status epilepticus, limbic epilepsy, abdominal epilepsy, Rett syndrome, limbic epilepsy, temporal lobe epilepsy, Jacksonian seizure disorder, Lafora disease and photosensitive epilepsy, amongst others.
Each and every type of epilepsy will have its own EEG findings, typical age of onset, unique combination of seizure kind, own kinds of treatment and prognosis. The classification which is most common divides epilepsy syndromes by distribution of seizures and by location. This is determined by how the seizures appear, by EEG and by cause. Syndromes are divided into epilepsies of unknown localization, generalized epilepsies and localization-related epilepsies.
usually localization-related epilepsies are called focal or partial epilepsies. These kinds arise from an epileptic focus, a small part of the brain which serves as the irritant driving the epileptic response. In contrast, generalized epilepsies happen from numerous independent foci and are called multifocal epilepsies. These can comprise epileptic circuits that affect the whole brain. At this time it has not been determined whether epilepsies of unknown localization arise from a portion of the brain or from more widespread circuits.
Click to Download the pdf