Kingston Medical Clinics - Respiratory Diseases are a term that includes a large variety of pathological conditions which affect the tissues and organs which make the gas exchange possible. The conditions which fit under the designation of a respiratory disease, comprise issues with the upper respiratory tract, bronchi, trachea, bronchioles, pleural cavity, alveoli, pleura as well as the nerves and muscles which are responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases range from self-limiting and mild like the common cold for example, to life-threatening conditions like for example lung cancer, pulmonary embolism, and bacterial pneumonia.
Pulmonology is the study of respiratory disease and a doctor specializing in this field in particular is called a pulmonologist. Other names utilized for this particular medical practitioner comprise: a respiratory medicine specialist, a thoracic medicine specialist, a chest medicine expert and a respirologist.
There are numerous classifications used for the numerous respiratory diseases; they can be classed by the organ or tissue involved or can be classed by the pattern and type of connected symptoms and signs, or according to the etiology or cause of the disease.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
This particular disease, which comprises acute respiratory distress syndrome, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, are characterized by a high neutrophil count.
A common cause of acute respiratory disease is an allergic response because of exposure to different foods and agents. There are some very common allergens found in some foods like lemon, radish, sea foods such as some fatty fish and prawns, peanuts, bananas, pomegranates, ice creams and dairy, lemon, arrowroot, berries and lady's finger. Weather conditions may also affect some individuals since sandy and dusty climate during summertime may make the air quality poor for individuals who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This grouping of diseases pertain to problems of the airways consisting of the alveoli, bronchi and bronchioles. They become reduced in volume or else that have impeded the free flow of gas, making it harder to move air in and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
Restrictive Lung Diseases are a category of respiratory disease that is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These RLD's may lead to increased lung stiffness and incomplete lung expansion. IRDS or likewise called Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an example.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections can affect any part of the respiratory system. They are traditionally divided into upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common type of upper respiratory infection is the common cold. Infections of the upper respiratory tract specific organs may consist of tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, otitis media and sinusitis are also in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common lower respiratory tract infection is pneumonia. This particular lung infection will usually be caused by Streptococcus within the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large reason for pneumonia across the globe. Different fungi and viruses could cause pneumonia too, like for instance pneumocystis pneumonia and acute respiratory syndrome.
Tumors in the respiratory system are either malignant or benign.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Pleural cavity diseases consist of emphysema and mesothelioma. A pleural effusion is a collection of fluid within the pleural cavity. This can be due to situations like cirrhosis and congestive heart failure, since the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here can likewise take place from TB, pleura inflammation, mesothelioma, pulmonary embolism and various conditions.
The pneumothorax is a hole in the pleura which helps to cover the lungs, where air is allowed within the lungs to escape into the pleural cavity. A tension pneumothorax is a severe form of this where the air cannot escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure gets bigger eventually compressing the blood vessels and the heart, causing a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Conditions that affect the pulmonary flow are known as Pulmonary Vascular Diseases. Several instances include: Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary embolism and Pulmponary edema.
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